ORCP 57 – JURORS
A Challenging compliance with selection procedures.
A(1) Motion. Within 7 days after the moving party discovered or by the exercise of diligence could have discovered the grounds therefor, and in any event before the jury is sworn to try the case, a party may move to stay the proceedings or for other appropriate relief on the ground of substantial failure to comply with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10 in selecting the jury.
A(2) Stay of proceedings. Upon motion filed under subsection (1) of this section containing a sworn statement of facts which, if true, would constitute a substantial failure to comply with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10 in selecting the jury, the moving party is entitled to present in support of the motion: the testimony of the clerk or court administrator; any relevant records and papers not public or otherwise available used by the clerk or court administrator; and any other relevant evidence. If the court determines that in selecting the jury there has been a substantial failure to comply with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10, the court shall stay the proceedings pending the selection of a jury in conformity with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10, or grant other appropriate relief.
A(3) Exclusive means of challenge. The procedures prescribed by this section are the exclusive means by which a party in a civil case may challenge a jury on the ground that the jury was not selected in conformity with the applicable provisions of ORS chapter 10.
B Jury; how drawn. When the action is called for trial the clerk shall draw names at random from the names of jurors in attendance upon the court until the jury is completed or the names of jurors in attendance are exhausted. If the names of jurors in attendance become exhausted before the jury is complete, the sheriff, under the direction of the court, shall summon from the bystanders, or from the body of the county, so many qualified persons as may be necessary to complete the jury. Whenever the sheriff shall summon more than one person at a time from the bystanders, or from the body of the county, the sheriff shall return a list of the persons so summoned to the clerk. The clerk shall draw names at random from the list until the jury is completed.
C Examination of jurors. When the full number of jurors has been called, they shall be examined as to their qualifications, first by the court, then by the plaintiff, and then by the defendant. The court shall regulate the examination in such a way as to avoid unnecessary delay.
D(1) Challenges for cause; grounds. Challenges for cause may be taken on any one or more of the following grounds:
D(1)(a) The want of any qualification prescribed by ORS 10.030 for a person eligible to act as a juror.
D(1)(b) The existence of a mental or physical defect which satisfies the court that the challenged person is incapable of performing the duties of a juror in the particular action without prejudice to the substantial rights of the challenging party.
D(1)(c) Consanguinity or affinity within the fourth degree to any party.
D(1)(d) Standing in the relation of guardian and ward, physician and patient, master and servant, landlord and tenant, or debtor and creditor to the adverse party; or being a member of the family of, or a partner in business with, or in the employment for wages of, or being an attorney for or a client of the adverse party; or being surety in the action called for trial, or otherwise, for the adverse party.
D(1)(e) Having served as a juror on a previous trial in the same action, or in another action between the same parties for the same cause of action, upon substantially the same facts or transaction.
D(1)(f) Interest on the part of the juror in the outcome of the action, or the principal question involved therein.
D(1)(g) Actual bias on the part of a juror. Actual bias is the existence of a state of mind on the part of a juror that satisfies the court, in the exercise of sound discretion, that the juror cannot try the issue impartially and without prejudice to the substantial rights of the party challenging the juror. Actual bias may be in reference to: the action; either party to the action; the sex of the party, the party’s attorney, a victim, or a witness; or a racial or ethnic group of which the party, the party’s attorney, a victim, or a witness is a member, or is perceived to be a member. A challenge for actual bias may be taken for the cause mentioned in this paragraph, but on the trial of such challenge, although it should appear that the juror challenged has formed or expressed an opinion upon the merits of the cause from what the juror may have heard or read, such opinion shall not of itself be sufficient to sustain the challenge, but the court must be satisfied, from all of the circumstances, that the juror cannot disregard such opinion and try the issue impartially.
D(2) Peremptory challenges; number. A peremptory challenge is an objection to a juror for which no reason need be given, but upon which the court shall exclude such juror. Either party is entitled to no more than three peremptory challenges if the jury consists of more than six jurors, and no more than two peremptory challenges if the jury consists of six jurors. Where there are multiple parties plaintiff or defendant in the case, or where cases have been consolidated for trial, the parties plaintiff or defendant must join in the challenge and are limited to the number of peremptory challenges specified in this subsection except the court, in its discretion and in the interest of justice, may allow any of the parties, single or multiple, additional peremptory challenges and permit them to be exercised separately or jointly.
D(3) Conduct of peremptory challenges. After the full number of jurors has been passed for cause, peremptory challenges shall be conducted by written ballot or outside of the presence of the jury as follows: the plaintiff may challenge one and then the defendant may challenge one, and so alternating until the peremptory challenges shall be exhausted. After each challenge, the panel shall be filled and the additional juror passed for cause before another peremptory challenge shall be exercised, and neither party is required to exercise a peremptory challenge unless the full number of jurors is in the jury box at the time. The refusal to challenge by either party in the order of alternation shall not defeat the adverse party of such adverse party’s full number of challenges, and such refusal by a party to exercise a challenge in proper turn shall conclude that party as to the jurors once accepted by that party and, if that party’s right of peremptory challenge is not exhausted, that party’s further challenges shall be confined, in that party’s proper turn, to such additional jurors as may be called. The court may, for good cause shown, permit a challenge to be taken as to any juror before the jury is completed and sworn, notwithstanding that the juror challenged may have been previously accepted, but nothing in this subsection shall be construed to increase the number of peremptory challenges allowed.
D(4) Challenge of peremptory challenge exercised on basis of race, ethnicity, or sex.
D(4)(a) A party may not exercise a peremptory challenge on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex. Courts shall presume that a peremptory challenge does not violate this paragraph, but the presumption may be rebutted in the manner provided by this section.
D(4)(b) If a party believes that the adverse party is exercising a peremptory challenge on a basis prohibited under paragraph (a) of this subsection, the party may object to the exercise of the challenge. The objection must be made before the court excuses the juror. The objection must be made outside of the presence of the jurors. The party making the objection has the burden of establishing a prima facie case that the adverse party challenged the juror on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex.
D(4)(c) If the court finds that the party making the objection has established a prima facie case that the adverse party challenged a prospective juror on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex, the burden shifts to the adverse party to show that the peremptory challenge was not exercised on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex. If the adverse party fails to meet the burden of justification as to the questioned challenge, the presumption that the challenge does not violate paragraph (a) of this subsection is rebutted.
D(4)(d) If the court finds that the adverse party challenged a prospective juror on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex, the court shall disallow the peremptory challenge.
E Oath of jury. As soon as the number of the jury has been completed, an oath or affirmation shall be administered to the jurors, in substance that they and each of them will well and truly try the matter in issue between the plaintiff and defendant, and a true verdict give according to the law and evidence as given them on the trial.
F Alternate jurors.
F(1) Definition. Alternate jurors are prospective replacement jurors empanelled at the court’s discretion to serve in the event that the number of jurors required under Rule 56 is decreased by illness, incapacitation, or disqualification of one or more jurors selected.
F(2) Decision to allow alternate jurors. The court has discretion over whether alternate jurors may be empanelled. If the court allows, not more than six alternate jurors may be empanelled.
F(3) Peremptory challenges; number. In addition to challenges otherwise allowed by these rules or any other rule or statute, each party is entitled to: one peremptory challenge if one or two alternate jurors are to be empanelled; two peremptory challenges if three or four alternate jurors are to be empanelled; and three peremptory challenges if five or six alternate jurors are to be empanelled. The court shall have discretion as to when and how additional peremptory challenges may be used and when and how alternate jurors are selected.
F(4) Duties and responsibilities. Alternate jurors shall be drawn in the same manner; shall have the same qualifications; shall be subject to the same examination and challenge rules; shall take the same oath; and shall have the same functions, powers, facilities, and privileges as the jurors throughout the trial, until the case is submitted for deliberations. An alternate juror who does not replace a juror shall not attend or otherwise participate in deliberations.
F(5) Installation and discharge. Alternate jurors shall be installed to replace any jurors who become unable to perform their duties or are found to be disqualified before the jury begins deliberations. Alternate jurors who do not replace jurors before the beginning of deliberations and who have not been discharged may be installed to replace jurors who become ill or otherwise are unable to complete deliberations. If an alternate juror replaces a juror after deliberations have begun, the jury shall be instructed to begin deliberations anew.
[CCP 12/2/78; §§ C, F amended by 1979 c.284 §§ 36, 37; § C amended by CCP 12/8/84; 1985 c.703 § 20; § C amended by CCP 12/10/94; § D amended by 1995 c.530 § 1 and 1995 c.707 § 1; § D amended by 1997 c.801 § 69; §§ A, B, D, F amended by CCP 12/1/12; § F amended by CCP 12/3/16.]